Tips For Good Resume

In today’s competitive world, once you are completed with your MBA, next important step would be recruitment from top organizations. It is the time when the candidate needs to create his/her resume.

At this time the first and foremost step is candidate must know what the resume should be like.  A resume is an observable document, which means that you are summarizing your academics and experiences using a format that is systematic and organized. This resume serves as the candidate’s “First Impression”.

Let us look at the points which should be kept in mind while creating a MBA resume.

  • Provide contact Information

This should be written on the top left corner of the document. It includes your Name, Contact information.

  • Mention the Job title

It is the prime step to provide a job title. It includes an overview that highlights the candidate’s responsibilities, skills, achievements. Candidates who have many years of experience can brief down their workings, like name of the organization and tenure.

  • Use Bullets/Pointers

Always make use of the bulletins. Don’t make your resume too hard to read. Your resume should not look like a novel that scares the readers. So Using bullets, brief down your points. And, do not write unnecessary information.

  • Mention your leadership qualities

Providing candidate’s leadership skills is mandatory on an MBA Resume. Skills like positivity, how motivational you have been at your previous workplace, flexibility, commitment.

  •  Easy to read Resume

The resume should not  be lengthy at all. Recruiters find it boring when it comes to heavy texts.

  • Verifiable Information

The information that is written on your resume should be authentic, like  educational background, contact information. Recruiters reject  MBA applicants if they provide false and fraudulent information.

  • Good use of vocabulary

Make good use of vocabulary words, instead of simple words. As you will be going for the top-notch organizations, you must have good command over the language.

  • No personal information

The recruiters are simply not interested in knowing the candidate’s personal details like, height, weight, marital status, children etc. Do not provide these details as the recruiters find it deficient.

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Posted by Muskan Dagar, Tuesday, July 11, 2017    3:02 PM


More MBA Graduates to be hired in 2018

The most common observation is that almost every fresh management graduate is worried about his placement. MBA job market is offering robust employment opportunities for management graduates and business master holders.

Irrespective of the immigration and work visa issues arosen after the wave of change of political situation of world’s biggest economy -US,companies are keen to hire management  graduates for this year as well. This signifies the importance of the management programme.

A survey on corporate recruiters conducted in 2017 highlighted that 9/10 employers are keen for hiring MBA and business masters’ graduates, about 86% of companies over the globe planned  to hire business master and mba degree holders 17% more in 2017.

Also demand for management graduates is highest in America and Asian region, also reported by the survey.   

In 2017, 59% of the total employers planned to hire MBA’s which was 50% more than  the  stats of 2016. Employers of countries like Latin America, USA, members of European union, nations in Asia  state that they will continue hiring international candidates despite formulation or alteration of any immigration law.

A greater percentage of employers hire MBA graduates of accounts/finances programs. 60% of companies hire candidates in data analytics; apart from this business development, finance profile, marketing, human resources continue to be high in demand.  

The repayment to these professional services i.e. the remuneration also looks pretty encouraging as 2017, 52% of global employers planned to increase the initial salary for MBAs. Many US based companies offered base salary of $1,10,000  as compared to $105,000 in 2016.

It is expected that the same change could be observed in the changing year therefore we can conclude that international firms are keen enough to hire MBA graduates and Master Degree holders as a crucial part of their organisations.  

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Posted by Muskan Dagar, Tuesday, July 4, 2017    11:55:00AM


Schemes Launched by Government of India which You must know

In today’s fast moving world, to be in competition there is need to stay updated with all the happening around us. If you are preparing for any of the competitive exam, Bank/PO, CSE, CAT, GMAT, XAT, SNAP, given below are the schemes you must know:

  • Details And Significance Of Farmer Centric Schemes
  • Acquire The Information Regarding Financial Inclusion Schemes
  • Urban Reforms: Smart Cities Mission And AMRUT Mission
  • Urban Reforms: HRIDAY, PRASAD, Swadesh Darshan, Rurban Schemes
  • Government Flagship Programs: Make In India And Digital India
  • Government Flagship Programs: Swachh Bharat Mission
  • Innovation And Entrepreneurship Schemes: Startup India Standup India And Atal Innovation Mission
  • Government Flagship Programmes: Skill India Mission
  • Women Related Schemes: Beti Bachao Beti Padhao And Sukanya Samridhi Yojna
  • Women Related Schemes: One Stop Centres, SWADHAR, STEP And Ujjwala
  • Infrastructure Related Schemes : Sagarmala Project, Bharat Mala Project, Setu Bharatam
  • Infrastructure Related Schemes : Green Highways Policy Of 2016
  • Miscellaneous Schemes : MUDRA & Gold Monetization Scheme
  • Features & Advantages Of Labor Reforms
  • Challenges Of Banking Sector Along With Indradhanush Plan
  • Banking Reforms : Understanding NPA’s


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Posted by Tanisha Narang, Thursday, May 18, 2017    04:45:00PM

GMAT : An Introduction

Introduction to GMAT


Owned by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC), the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is a computer based, standardized test which is taken up by the students who want to apply to for various business management courses after graduation in order to attain a Master’s degree in Business Administration. Students appearing for GMAT can apply to more than 2100 universities across the world that offers a choice of more than 6000 programs  in various business and management streams. GMAT has its test centers in 112 countries and can be taken up at any point of time during a particular year, whenever the students would like to appear for the GMAT exam.

GMAT analyzes a person’s reading, writing, analytical, logical and quantitative skills through its unique pattern. It includes 4 sections that includes – Verbal Ability, Quantitative Aptitude, Analytical Writing and Integrated Reasoning. The sectional format for GMAT is as follows:

GMAT Test Section No. of Questions Question Types Duration
Analytical Writing Assessment 1 Topic Analysis of Argument 30 minutes

Integrated Reasoning

12 Questions Multi-Source Reasoning

Graphics Interpretation

Two- Two Part Analysis

Table Analysis

30 minutes


37 Questions Data Sufficiency

Problem Solving

75 minutes


41 questions Reading Comprehension

Critical Reasoning

Sentence Correction

75 minutes
Total Exam Time     3 hours, 30 minutes


What edge does GMAT has over other exams is the question that comes first in the mind of anyone who wants to pursue a Master’s degree from some reputed B-School. The answer to the question is very simple. Being accepted by more than 6000 courses for business and management programs, GMAT is the first preference for world’s business leaders to get into the world’s leading business schools. It simply works. The skills that are respected by these leading schools can be very well showcased through the GMAT exam.

“Writing GMAT exam is ensuring your first successful step towards a glorified career.”

Once GMAT is cleared it guarantees you admission into world class business classroom. From nearly 60 years, reputed B-Schools all across the world have been trusting GMAT and have been using it to accept students in the courses offered by them. GMAT provides the following advantages not only to these schools but also to the students applying in these schools:

  • It provides a sync between the skills that you possess and those required by schools:With its unique Integrated Reasoning Section, GMAT allows you to showcase the skills that matter the most to these schools and business houses.
  • Tested and Certified measure of one’s success:After being researched for decades GMAT has been confirmed as a reliable and valid predictor of a person’s academic journey in the present world graduate management courses.
  • Having its acceptance by most business schools across the world: GMAT is accepted  by most of the management schools and allows you to take maximum number of courses. The number is way more than any other examination.
  • Give the exam when you feel like giving it: Once you are convinced about your preparations for appearing in the exam, you can sit for GMAT in world’s best state-of-the-art facilities specially designed to give you an incomparable test-taking experience so as to bring out the best in you.

GMAT Content Relevance

The content for GMAT has been designed in such a way that it evaluates your skills and abilities in one just 3 hours 30 minutes. All the sections are designed in a manner that they measure  your –

  1. Reading and Writing Skills –With the help of its Verbal and Analytical Writing sections you can be very well judged for your abilities on reading and writing. You can prove it in these two sections that you have the skills required in you.
  2. Understanding the Real world situations –The Integrated Reasoning Sections allows you to showcase your abilities in understanding the real world situations and inferring the relevant information out of them.
  3. Quantitative Reasoning power –The Quantitative Aptitude Section that brings to you data sufficiency and problem solving challenges allows you to display your abilities to solve the quantitative problems in one go.
  4. Comprehending Capabilities –The Reading Comprehensions under the Verbal Section allows you to display the brilliance in you as far as understanding of the passages is concerned. GMAT passages can be from ‘n’ number of fields like – economics, psychology, sociology, history, politics, literature, etc. Answer them correctly and showcase your comprehending capabilities.
  5. Analytical & Logical Abilities –Almost every section require you to apply logic and analysis in solving the questions. Pertaining to the questions in those sections, if you apply the correct logic and analyze them in the best manner, you can communicate your brilliance in these two aspects.
  6. Graphical Understanding –One thing that is very much crucial in any business is the understanding of the graphs. The Integrated Reasoning Section brings up such challenges for you. The correct solution to these problems displays your abilities in proper understanding of Graphs.
  7. Analysis of Situation – The Analytical Writing section provides you with one topic on basis of which you need to provide your analysis of arguments. Providing with the best reasons, analyzing the situations in the best manner, expressing them in the best written format allows you to score high, thereby showcasing your analytical and writing skills. 


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Posted by Yogita Kapoor Friday, October 21, 2016 01:15:00 PM 




As a young boy he ran a tea stall and at 18, he went wandering to the Himalayas seeking ‘sanyas’, this man had the nerve to tell the bigwigs, ‘going to be fully responsible for Gujarat or not at all’ when offered to be  the Deputy Chief Minister. A man known not to mince his words, Narendra Modi became the longest serving Chief Minister in Gujarat’s history after being in power for 2063 days continuously, in July 2007 and the era of Modi is still in no hurry to approach the other end.

Narendra Damodardas Modi , a self imposed autocrat and notably, a great strategist has been serving the Indian state of Gujarat for the past 12 years and is undeniably the most charismatic leader of the country. His tenure as the chief minister started with a blemish of sorts in the form of the 2002 riots of Gujarat, which left 1000 or so Muslims dead and a lot more with memories to haunt them forever. Narendra Modi garnered unsympathetic (mis)followers when he refused to apologise and resign maintaining his stance of un-involvement in any of the wrongdoings. However, Gujarat grew to be the most efficient and stable state of its time, picking itself soon after the riots and in the present day, every man in Gujarat worships Modi and his manoeuvres to bring the state to an industrial zenith. Understandably, the crime and corruption rates have gone down where as the education and industrial sectors are gaining leaps and bounds.

However, it is noted that the impact Modi asserts in his home state is often missing when it comes to the nation, at large. The population outside Gujarat still, somewhere think of the macabre riots when they think of Narendra Modi. No doubt, he is a devoted leader and foresees a future laden with great industries and growth powered by solar energy, Narendra Modi needs to build up an image which is infused with a modicum of flexibility and more regard for the masses, not just Hindus in particular. He is one of the best the country has, but to widen his appeal, it is mandatory Modi widens his humanistic approach and as he says, the dream of ‘Surajya’ for India will be fulfilled.

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Posted by Yogita Kapoor, Monday, September 05, 2016 03:00:00 PM Categories: General Awareness



Inventions and discoveries in Physics and Chemistry

Anderson — Discovered positive electrons.
Archimedes — Discovery of the Principles of lever and of specific gravity; invention  of the famous Archimedean screw.
Avogadro — An Italian scientist known for Avogadro’s Hypothesis.
Bacquerel  —R adio-activity of uranium.
Baird — Television.
Baron Napier — Logarithms.
Benjamin Franklin — Invented lightning conductor.
Bessemer—Steel smelting process.
Bhabha, Dr H.J.—Research in Cosmic rays and Quantum theory.
Binet—Intelligence Test.
Birbal Sahni—Researches in Botany.
Bose, J.C.—Invented Crescograph and published many works on plant physiology. He discovered that plants have sense and perception.
Bose, S.N.—Discovery of a group of nuclear particles named after him “Boson”.
Boyle—Boyle’s law; Pressure x volume = constant at a constant given temperature. Boyle was the greatest scientist of England in his time.
Bohr—Electron Theory—Atomic structure.
Braun, Dr Wernher von—space flying.
Bunsen—Invention of the spectroscope.
Carothers—Nylon plastics.
Cavendish—Discovery of chemical composition of water; discovery of hydrogen (Inflammable Air); ‘rare gases’.
Chadwick—Discovery of the neutron.
Chandrasekhar—Mathematical Astrophysics.
Charles Darwin—Theory of Evolution; Origin of Species.
Clarke, Arthur C.—Concept of Geostationary Orbit.
Curie, Madame—Discovery of radium.
Dalton—Atomic theory; laws of chemical combination; law of partial pressures; the law of multiple proportions.
Democritus—Greek philosopher—(Atomic theory).
Dewar—Invented cordite, liquid oxygen and introduced thermos flask.
Einstein—Theory of relativity.
Euclid—Science of geometry.
Fahrenheit—Fahrenheit mercury thermometric scale in which freezing point is  –32° and boiling point is 212°.
Faraday—Electromagnetic induction and laws of electrolysis.
Fermi—Discovered artificial splitting of atoms.
Freud—Doctrine of Psycho-analysis.
Gay Lussac—Law of gases.
Gauss—System of absolute electric measurements.
Good Year—Discovered the art of vulcanising rubber.
Herschel, William—Discovered the Planet—Uranus.
Hertz—Electrical waves.
Hippalus—Founder of scientific astronomy.
Hoffmann—Discovered the first aniline dye.
Kelvin, Lord—Dynamical theory of heat.
Khorana, Dr Hargobind—Deciphering the genetic code.
Kodak—Film and photographic goods.
Lablanc—Manufacture of washing soda.
Lawrence—Invention of cyclotron.
Lockyer—Helium gas.
Louis Braille—Perfected his system of  reading and writing for the blind.
Marconi—Wireless telegraphy; radio.
Maria-Montessori—‘Montessori’ method of teaching children.
Maxwell—Electro-magnetic Theory of Light.
Meghnad Saha—Effect of pressure on Radiation through bodies.
Mendel—Laws of heredity.
Mandeleev—Periodic Table.
Morse—Morse system of electric telegraphy.
Newton—Laws of gravitation; Law of Motion.
Oliver Lodge—Physicist.Researches in wireless communications.
Oppenheimer—Researches in atomic theory.
Otto Hahn—Discovery of uranium fission.
Parsons—Steam turbine.
Pavlov—Theory of Conditioned Reflex.
Perkin—‘Mauve dye’.
Pitman—Founded the Pitman system of phonographic shorthand.
Planck—Quantum theory.
Plimsoll—Introduced a line of demarcation on the ships beyond which the ships cannot be loaded.
Priestley—Discovery of Oxygen.
Raman, C.V.—“Raman Effect” on polarisation of light and theories on crystals and diamond formation.
Ramanathan—Molecular scattering of light in fluids.
Ramanujam—A great Indian mathematician.
Ramsay—Discovery of Inert gases such as Argon, Neon, Helium etc.
Ray, P.C.—Researches in chemistry.
Regnault—Experiments in regard to the physical properties of bodies and their relation to heat.
Roger Bacon—Gun powder.
Rontgen—Discovery of X-rays.
Rohmkorff—Induction coil.
Rutherford—Atomic Research; succeeded in splitting the atom for the first time in 1918.
Stephenson—British engineer and pioneer in Railways. He was the first to put a locomotive on the line that was able to draw a train of 31 carriages.
Thomson, J.J.—Discovered electron.
Travers—Discovery of Neon gas (Working with Ramsay).
Urey—Discovery of Heavy Hydrogen.
Volta—Current electricity and electric battery.

Pioneers in Mechanical Inventions and Discoveries

Austin—Motor Car.
Bell, Graham—Telephone.
Caxton—Printing Press.
Daimler—Gas engine.
Davy—Miner’s Safety Lamp.
Diesel—Internal Combustion engine (Diesel engine).
Dunlop—Pneumatic tyre.
Edison—First electric bulb and gramophone.
Fick—Law of Diffusion—Fick’s Law.
Frank Whittle—Jet propulsion.
Fulton—Stream boat.
Gillette—Safety razor.
Guttenburg—Art of Printing.
Hoe—Rotary Printing Press.
Howe—Sewing Machine.
Huygens—Pendulum clock.
James Watt—Steam engine (patented in 1769).
Landstrom, J.E.—Safety Matches.
Macmillan—Bicycle (1842).
Mauser—Magazine of rifle.
Mercator—Celestial and a terrestrial globe.
Montgolfier—Balloon (1883)
Pascal—Calculating Machine.
Puckle, James—Machine gun
Stephenson—Railway engine.
Swinton—Military tank.
Watt, Robert Watson—Radar.
W. & O. Wright (Wright Brothers)Aeroplane (1903).
Waterman—Fountain pen.
Zeiss—Lenses; Camera.

Pioneers in Medical Inventions and Discoveries

Banting—Insulin (as a palliative for diabetes).
Barnard, Christian—Replacing the human heart.
Brahmchari, U.M.—Cure of Kala-a-zar fever.
Davy—Isolation of metals by electricity; studied properties of chlorine.
Domagk—Sulpha drugs as bactericides.
Eijkman—Cause of Beri-Beri.
Finsen—Discovered curative effect of ultra violet rays; photography.
Fleming, Alexander—Penicillin (in 1929).
Harvey—Circulation of blood.
Hahnemann—Homoeopathy (founder).
Hopkins, Frederick Gowland—Vitamin D.
Jenner—Smallpox Vaccination.
Koch—Tubercle Bacillus.
Lister, Lord—Antiseptic treatment.
Pasteur, Louis—Treatment of rabies; cure of hydrophobia.
Ronald Ross—Malaria Parasite.
Salk, Jonas E.—Anti-polio Vaccine.
Simpson and Harrison—Chloroform.

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Posted by Yogita Kapoor Saturday, September 03, 2016 11:30:00 PM Categories: General Awareness

Relation between GDP and Power Sector of a country


Think there’s absolutely no linkage? Think again.

The GDP of a country is essentially the value of its overall output of goods and services during a fiscal year at market prices, excluding net income from abroad. Many things are affected by the GDP – the growth rate, the unemployment rate, the monetary policy and asset allocation are the more predominant ones.

Electricity – (the lack of it) apart from being a major source of irritation in most Indian households – is absolutely essential for our businesses to run. The Power Sector, therefore, forms the backbone of most, if not all, industrial ventures in any country. Can you imagine what would happen if electricity ceased to exist in our lives?

The GDP would drop, for one.

Studies have shown that developed nation states with large GDPs like the United States of America and the Sweden also have very well developed power sectors. While the former has an energy consumption of 12,884 kWh per capita corresponding to a per capita GDP of $45,192, the latter has an energy consumption of 14,141 kWh per capita corresponding to a per capita GDP of $43,640.

China, the current leader among developing nations, has an energy consumption of 2,631 kWh per capita corresponding to its GDP of $3,749 per capita. Pakistan, on the other hand, has an energy consumption of 451 kWh per capita corresponding to its GDP of $949 per capita.

India has a meagre energy consumption of 597 kWh per capita corresponding to its GDP of $1,127 per capita.

Evidently, there seems to be a strong direct linkage between a country’s power sector and its GDP. This means that as the power sector of a country becomes more developed, its GDP increases and vice versa.

We are far, far away from achieving our full growth potential majorly because of the backwardness of our power sector, as compared to the power sectors of other developed and developing nations.

One of the contributors to this backwardness is the supply shortfall. Demand, especially peak demand, continues to outpace all supply output in India. This combined with an increased affordability of household and other electronic items has added to the burden on the power grid.

There is a need for coal sector reforms in India, as stated by CII. According to them, more coal-bearing areas need to be opened up by setting up exploration activity. This is predicted to boost production, increase scale and introduce competition.

 Aggregate Technical and Commercial Losses in the country amount to about 30-35% according to official records. This means that 30-35% of the billed amounts are just not realised. These figures could be even higher owing to the lack of transparency and the substantial proportion of the population that is not metered.

The weakest link in India’s power sector, however, is the distribution. Theft, pilferage and network losses are the maximum in this segment. Since distribution is perceived as a social obligation of the Government rather than a commercial activity, subsidized and often unmetered power adds to the woes of the power sector in the forms of technical losses, billing and recovery, and consumption habits. T&D (transmission and distribution) Losses were close to 20% in 2008. This means that about 20% of the power produced in the country is lost only in transmission and distribution. This loss is thrice of what it is in the USA.

Clearly, positive reforms in the power sector will contribute to long term economic growth. This is a problem area the Government has identified and is working towards tackling the issue. 

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Posted by Yogita Kapoor Saturday, September 3, 2016 11:30:00 PM Categories: General Awareness



The fruits of economic growth have not benefited everyone uniformly. Some are left behind and some others are not touched by the benefits of economic growth. These some when combined together define poverty. Poverty is the lack of basic human needs like health, education, clean water, nutrition etc. It is a condition in which one’s income is not sufficient enough to fulfill his basic needs. It is curse and something like nobody would want to own. Laster R. Brown in his book ‘World Without Borders’ explains poverty thus; “Unfortunately it is not an economic abstraction, it is a human condition. It is despair, grief and pain. It is the despair of a father with a family of seven children in a poor country when he joins the, swelling ranks of unemployed with no prospects of unemployment compensation. Poverty is the longing of a young boy playing outside a village school but unable to enter because his parents lack a few rupees needed to buy text books. Poverty is the grief of parents watching a three year old child die of a routine childhood disease because they cannot afford any medical care.”

Poverty exists because the economic system is organized in ways that encourage the accumulation of wealth at one end and creates conditions of scarcity that make poverty inevitable at the other. Rich in the society are getting richer; poor are getting poorer. Poverty is both a structural aspect of the system and an ongoing consequence of how the system is organized. In developing countries the poverty stands as the major obstacle in development. The primary reason as a cause of poverty is education. In a country like India one-third of the country’s population is still illiterate and a majority is not educated up to the age of 15 years. Even among the educated, everyone does not have employable skills of the modern economy. The education system is not tuned to the changing economic scenario. The large agriculture workforce in rural areas is not sustainable with dwindling cultivable land and use of modern methods of cultivation. As a result, the rural labour is pushed into cities in search of work but they do not have any employable skills in the urban formal sector, and thus they often end up doing odd jobs in urban areas.

Developing nations around the world are getting financial help from more Industrialized nations. But still poverty is a problem in developing nations. One of the reason is, this money that people receive in the form of aid solves the short term problems like food for a week or month. The long term impact is nil. One should not forget the corruption level in these less developed nations. Most of the money goes to the bank accounts of politicians of that country. For these reasons, financial help alone does not solve poverty problem in developing nations. Government employs many poverty alleviation programs to get rid of this malignance. Involvement of the local communities is the key to the success of poverty alleviation programs. In the absence of community involvement, the programs are plagued with bureaucratic muddle and corruption at every level. At the macro-level, there is a need to co-ordinate a myriad of poverty alleviation programs of the central government and the State governments. The transfer of central funds to the States for different programs should be efficient. Currently, such funds and goods like food grains are not fully utilized by the States. There is a need to strengthen the financial management capacity of certain States to use the funds efficiently.

Social problems are more than an accumulation of individual woes, they can’t be solved through an accumulation of individual solutions. We must include social solutions that take into account how economic and other systems really work. We also have to identify proper steps to curb with this problem. To understand where poverty comes from, what makes it such a stubborn feature of social life, we have to begin with the simple sociological fact that patterns of inequality result as much from how social systems are organized as they do from how individuals participate in them. Poverty is more of social marginalization of an individual, household or group in the community/society rather than inadequacy of income to fulfill the basic needs. Indeed, inadequate income is one of the factors of marginalization, but not the sole factor. The poverty alleviation programmes and other measures to get rid of poverty should not aim merely to increase the income level of individual, household or group, but mainstreaming marginalized in the development process of the country.


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Rural Marketing : Are companies finally taking the rural customers seriously?


“The future lies with those companies who see the poor as their customers.”  

 In the recent years, with the expansion of overall economy and increased purchasing power of the rural communities, rural markets have gained considerable significance. Rural markets, as part of any economy, have untapped potential. Companies tend to see this as an opportunity to broaden their horizons and take the road less traversed. The managers have now recognized that to build real sales volumes they will have to reach outside the big cities.

  In several categories, rural India already accounts for the lion’s share. According to MART, a New Delhi-based research organization that offers rural solutions to the corporate world, rural India buys 46% of all soft drinks sold, 49% of motorcycles and 59% of cigarettes. This trend is not limited just to utilitarian products: 11% of rural women use lipstick. In 2001-02, LIC sold 55% of its policies in rural India. Of two million BSNL mobile connections, 50% are in small towns / villages. Of the 6.0 lakh villages, 5.22 lakh have a Village Public Telephone (VPT).41 million Kisan Credit Cards have been issued (against 22 million credit-plus-debit cards in urban), with cumulative credit of Rs. 977 billion resulting in tremendous liquidity. Of the 20 million Rediffmail sign-ups, 60% are from small towns. 50% of transactions from these towns are on Rediff online shopping site.42 million rural households (HHs) are availing banking services in comparison to 27 million urban HHs.Investment in formal savings instruments is 6.6 million HHs in rural and 6.7 million HHs in urban.


What makes rural marketing so attractive is its sheer size, 742 million people or around 60 percent of total population. Apart from this the penetration level is insignificant in comparison to the urban market that means very less competition. With the increased MFIs and Banks being set up in rural areas, credit is easily and readily available. Companies have started introspecting and coming up with the plans to woo to the market where the future lies. Several European multinational firms and a few U.S. firms have been making inroads into rural India for years.

  Companies such as Unilever, Phillips and Nestle have long been known to India’s rustic dukaandaars, or merchants. Among U.S. firms, companies such as Colgate and Gillette have made considerable headway. Marketing to rural customers often involves building categories by persuading them to try and adopt products they may not have used before. A company like Colgate has to build toothpaste as a category, which means convincing people to change to toothpaste instead of using neem twigs to clean their teeth, which was the traditional practice.

  With the improving infrastructure, electricity, literacy rate and social status, a lot of firms are trying to understand and cater to the rural consumers and customers. Rural India buys Products more often (mostly weekly).Buys small packs, low unit price more important than economy. In rural India, brands rarely fight with each other; they just have to be present at the right place. Many brands are building strong rural base without much advertising support.Chik shampoo, second largest shampoo brand. Ghadi detergent, the third largest brand. Fewer brand choices in rural areas; number of FMCG brand in rural is half that of urban.The problem arises with the distribution of these products in rural market but that too has been handled by initiatives like ITC’s e-Choupal and HUL’s Shakti.

 With help from Shakti distributors, Hindustan Lever has been able to reach rural consumers in thousands of remote Indian villages. According to media reports, Shakti distributors now account for 15% of the company’s sales in rural India. The opportunity is enormous as the brand loyalty is more in case of less affluent consumers. While the eChoupal network was initiated to facilitate more efficient and effective procurement, the connectivity both physical and informational between the farmer and the market that it facilitated has allowed ITC to use it for distribution of goods and services from the market to the farmer.

 The opportunities lie not only in case of FMCG but also in case of automobiles, banking, electronics, telecommunication and service industry. The companies can use the existing infrastructure like     Post Offices(1,38,000 ),Haats(42,000), Melas (exhibitions 25,000 ), Mandis (agri markets 7,000 ),Public Distribution Shops(3,80,000), Bank Branches(32,000) for their promotion and as distribution centres. Enough research is being done on the ways in which companies can reach to their consumers instead of the consumers reaching to the firms.

 Thus, looking at the challenges and the opportunities, which rural markets offer to the marketers, it can be said that the future is very promising for those who can understand the dynamics of rural markets and exploit them to their best advantage. A radical change in attitudes of marketers towards the vibrant and burgeoning rural markets is called for, so they can successfully impress on the millions rural consumers spread over approximately six hundred thousand villages in rural India and thousands of small towns.

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Angela Merkel: a woman of power  


Angela Dorothea Merkel is a German politician who has been Chancellor of Germany since 2005, and the Leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000. She is the first woman to hold either office.She is the third longest-serving leader after Jean-Claude Junker of Luxembourg, and Andrus Ansip of Estonia.The former scientist – daughter of a Protestant clergyman, brought up under communist rule in East Germany, who now dominates not only the domestic politics of her reunited homeland but also the interminable crisis-management of the EU – is cool and controlled.Fixing the crisis in the Eurozone has become the touchstone of her entire political career. It is a historic challenge, but she tackles it as a fundamental scientific problem to be solved, stubbornly and consistently. 

She is called a Machtfrau in Germany – a woman of power – who has managed to get to the top as an outsider in a male-dominated world, removing all her potential rivals on the way and now reveling in popularity ratings ahead of any other politician in the land. No one seriously disputes that Merkel is today the most powerful politician in Europe. Forbes magazine just declared her the second most powerful figure in the world, after President Obama.

It’s a trick not every political leader can pull off: put some 420 billion euro on the European table to protect Europe’s weakest economies from default and remain your country’s most popular politician. That’s what Angela Merkel has managed. Despite having made unpopular concessions to Greece only a few days earlier, delegates of her Christian Democratic Union (CDU) re-elected her as party leader with close to 98 percent support last week. Her public approval ratings remain north of 60 percent, and the trust that German voters have in Merkel’s management of the euro-zone crisis puts the Chancellor and her party in a strong position ahead of general elections next September.

The reason behind these impressive figures is that Merkel’s mix of strong commitment to Europe on the one hand and the push for structural reform in southern Europe on the other exactly reflects the policy preferences of the average German voter. Divert too far from this path to the right, as Merkel’s junior coalition partner, the Liberals, attempted in some regional election campaigns last year, and German voters will punish you for your lack of European solidarity. Step too far to the left, like opposition Social Democrats (SPD) have tried with calls for Euro-bonds and a debt redemption fund, and voters lose trust in your ability to defend the German taxpayers’ interests. In the middle stands Merkel. Her calm, approachable persona and her centrist incrementalism have persuaded German voters that two conflicting goals can be achieved: Save Europe and limit the financial burden on Berlin.

She went into politics, she says, because she was convinced that eastern Germany needed more people in parliament who had never been politically active. The falling of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the end of the Cold war had a huge impact on her life.Though she denies having any political passions, she does agree on having political themes. The challenge of globalization is one, and the need for more competitiveness – especially in Europe – to meet it.As a politician she wants to understand problems fundamentally- and not just what she needs to know to survive another week in politics. She is also formidably hard-working. Yet for all that is known about her, Angela Merkel remains an enigma.

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Posted by Yogita Kapoor Monday, August 29, 2016 03:10:00 PM